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Date: 2018
Number: 85
Editorial: El trimestre económico
This study assesses the determinants of grade repetition and middle school drop-out in Uruguay, focusing on the role of past nutritional trajectory and non-cognitive abilities. A bulk of research attests the relevance of early childhood development and interventions in early stages on a wide set of outcomes across the whole life cycle (Behrman et al., 2009; Conti and Heckman, 2012; Daelmans et al., 2016). In the developing world, many studies highlight the strong association among nutrition and other childhood outcomes, and specifically schooling (Behrman and Wolfe, 1987). However, the role of non cognitive abilities on educational outcomes has been studied to a lesser extent. Methods: We use a two waves panel survey that follows-up a cohort of children since 2004, when they were first graders at public primary schools. The cohort considered in this study was exposed to a severe economic crisis in the first 3-4 years of life (1999-2003). In order to isolate the determinants of the probability of repetition we use a fixed effects estimator, exploiting the longitudinal nature of the data-set. To overcome the potential endogeneity problems arising from including previous repetition events as a determinant in the case of the school drop-outs equations, we base our analysis on MCO and MC2E estimators.
Author/s: Lanzilotta, Bibiana; Brida, Juan Gabriel; Moreno, Leonardo; Santiñaque, Florencia
Number: 69
Editorial: Tourism Management
This study contributes to the literature on the determinants of tourism spending on cruises at a microeconomic level, through the application of innovative methodologies framed within the machine learning literature. The objective is to study the distribution of the total expenditure of cruise passengers in Uruguay, using data of the 2016–2017 cruise season survey (collected by the Ministry of Tourism of Uruguay). Due to the nature of this variable, we implement a two stages modeling strategy. In the first stage, we model the probability of spending, and in the second, the strictly positive spending. The paper analyze the distribution of conditional expenditure to a set of sociodemographic, travel, contextual and satisfaction variables applying non-linear regression techniques with Lasso penalty and nonparametric techniques such as Random Forest. The empirical results show that the key variables that determine the average spending of cruise tourists are their residence and the port of arrival of the cruise. The analysis of the predictive performance of the models (applied through a training sample and a test sample) shows that Random Forest method has the greater predictive capacity. Finally, the importance variable is analyzed by Random Forest.
Author/s: Willebald, Henry ; Badia-Miró , Marc; Nicolini, Esteban
Date: 2018
Editorial: Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 49 Issue 01 Summer
Most of the regional inequality in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay stems from differences within the countries rather than from disparities across them.
Date: 2018
Editorial: Applied Research in Quality of Life
We assess the recent evolution of the quality of life in Uruguay, analysing whether current subjective well-being levels are conditioned by the objective well-being trajectory of each individual. We explore subjective well-being in 3 domains: life, economic situation and housing satisfaction. Although adaptation has been addressed in the empirical literature for developed countries, there is scarce evidence for developing countries due to the lack of suitable panel datasets. In this article, we provide an econometric test of the adaptation hypothesis based on longitudinal data from Uruguay for the years 2004, 2006 and 2011/12 (Estudio Longitudinal de Bienestar en Uruguay). Our main findings show that present levels of life, economic and housing satisfaction are each positively correlated with the corresponding contemporary and lagged objective variable of interest. Thus, we reject the adaptation hypothesis in all the dimensions considered. We also explore the role of social interactions in the 3 subjective well-being dimensions, finding out that average objective well-being of the reference group (either income or crowding) is not associated with individual subjective well-being levels.
Author/s: Willebald, Henry ; Sandonato, Silvana
Date: 2018
Editorial: Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 715
The debate on the relationship between natural resources abundance and economic growth is still open. Our contribution to this field combines a long-run perspective (1870–2014) with the study of a peripheral country in the world economy (Uruguay).
Date: 2018
Editorial: Panoeconomicus, OnLine-First Issue 00
This paper studies the RER volatility dynamics, estimated through GARCH and IGARCH models for Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, and Uruguay from 1990 to 2013.
Author/s: Galaso, Pablo
Date: 2017
Editorial: European Planning Studies
This paper outlines a theoretical framework to study collective social capital at the local scale using social network analysis. To do so, it develops a review on empirical research that found evidence regarding the impact of networks on the performance of cities and regions.
Author/s: Lanzilotta, Bibiana; Brida, Juan Gabriel; Santiñaque, Florencia
Date: 2017
Editorial: Revista de métodos cuantitativos para la economía y la empresa
This paper introduces the use of graphs in the analysis of the determinants of tourists' expenditure, providing an alternative approach to the methods usually employed. Graph-based analysis is applied to study the behavior of cruise passengers arriving at the ports of Montevideo and Punta del Este in Uruguay. The graphical representation allows to synthesize and visualize the relationships between the set of variables that characterize tourists or tourist groups and the determinants of their level of spending. The graph-based methodology is particularly suitable to represent the dependency relationships among variables (between adjacent nodes) and conditional independence (between non-adjacent nodes). For the empirical application, individual data from the surveys of cruise passengers corresponding to the cruise season between November 2014 and April 2015 in Uruguay are considered. The existence of dependencies between spending variables and other variables that may be of interest (sociodemographic, contextual, etc.) is studied. The exercise shows that the variables that better explain visitors' behavior are linked to the port of disembarkation and the expenditure. The results also show that socioeconomic variables are not directly linked to spending
Date: 2017
Editorial: World Development
Author/s: Muinelo, Leonel; and Suanes Martinez, Macarena
Date: 2017
Editorial: Economics of Innovation and New Technology
This paper analyzes the long-term relationship between R&D, innovations and productivity in 400 Uruguayan manufacturing firms during the period 2001 to 2009 based on a modified version of the structural model of Crepon, Duguet and Mairesse (CDM).
Date: 2017
Editorial: REDES, Revista Hispana para el Análisis de Redes Sociales, Vol.28, #2
This article analyzes the networks of organizations implementing territorial social policies in Uruguay. It studies four neighborhoods with a high concentration of poor households and analyzes three types of links reflecting three inter-organizational interactions: project development, information request and infrastructure sharing. Social network analysis methods are applied with a global, groupal, and individual perspective, focusing on the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES).
Author/s: Lanzilotta, Bibiana; Brida, Juan Gabriel; Bellani, Alicia
Date: 2017
Editorial: Revista de Economía del Rosario
In Uruguay, as in other Latin American countries, cruise tourism has increase its importance as a source of foreign exchange. In order to contribute to the planning of tourism programs and intensify this trend, this paper analyses the socioeconomic, satisfaction and behavioural determinants of cruise passengers at landing ports. Results from Heckman’s selection models applied on surveys from 2010 to 2014 show that only a few characteristics determine the level of spending: the Brazilian nationality, travel in groups, visiting Montevideo and being satisfied with the trip. This pattern has not had significant variations in the period.
Author/s: Román, Carolina ; Padilla, Emilio
Date: 2017
Editorial: Energy Economics
The long-term relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use and economic activity level is estimated for Uruguay between 1882 and 2010.
Date: 2017
Editorial: Revista Uruguaya de Historia Económica, Vol VII (11):73-82
La “base de datos sobre la banca en Uruguay, 1929-1966” recoge la información disponible sobre las instituciones bancarias en funcionamiento y sobre los principales rubros del balance del sector para el período comprendido entre 1929 y 1966.
Date: 2017
Editorial: Revista Uruguaya de Historia Económica, VII (11): 43-72
This document analyzes the institutional context of the Controller of Changes towards the beginning of the 1940, when it was consolidated, with the creation of the Controller of Exports and Imports (January, 1941).
Date: 2017
Editorial: IZA Journal of Labor Policy 2017 6:8
This paper analyzes the participation path of workers in the formal and informal sectors throughout their lives and their pension eligibilities, as well as how the social security scheme can change the aforementioned participation path. High levels of informality have impacts on the benefits that workers receive, especially their pension benefits. I use Argentinean panel data from 1995 to 2008 to construct a structural discrete choice model which estimates the population’s labor path and their pension eligibilities. I find evidence that low-educated workers have difficulties to obtain a pension by the age of 65 and even by age 70. Policy experiments show that if the parameters are fixed as in the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) model, there is a slight reduction in the years worked in the formal sector and the percentage of workers who obtain a Full pension. If the pension requirements (minimum age and years contributing) are stricter, there is an increase in the years spent in the formal sector but it is not sufficient to achieve the benchmark level of pension coverage. If the requirements are looser, there is a reduction in the amount of time spent in formality to contribute up to the new threshold.
Author/s: Díaz, Gastón
Date: 2017
Editorial: European Review of Economic History, Volume 21, Issue 3, 1 August 2017, Pages 280–301
Railways were an important factor in the expansion of Latin American economies in the late-nineteenth century. Due to their potential impact, governments often promoted railway construction through subsidies. The Uruguayan state offered profit guarantees to foreign railway companies and was able to attract massive investment in the railway sector. This paper asks the question of whether these railway guarantees were efficient, and estimates subsidized and unsubsidized private returns, as well as the social returns, of the Uruguayan railway network from 1869 to 1913
Author/s: Vigorito, Andrea ; Verónica Amarante, Marco Manacorda y Edward Miguel
Editorial: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy Vol. 8, Issue 2
Using a unique array of program and social security administrative micro-data matched to longitudinal vital statistics in Uruguay, we estimate that participation in a generous social assistance program led to a sizable reduction in the incidence of low birthweight.
Author/s: Arim, Rodrigo ; Amarante Verónica; Yapor Mijail
Date: 2016
Editorial: IZA Journal of Labor & Development, vol 5. num. 13
During the first decade of the twentieth century, the Uruguayan labor market showed a significant decline in wage inequality and in the incidence of labor informality, while similar changes also took place in other Latin American countries. These trends were observed in a period of strong economic dynamism.
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