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Purpose Inquiring about the patterns of interaction within clusters can provide a valuable insight into the cooperation and competition strategies followed by firms. However, such internal patterns are difficult to identify using conventional methods. This study aims to apply a social network analysis approach to identify and analyze different sub-groups of firms within a dairy cluster. These sub-groups seem to respond to different forms of productive organization, with different levels of territorial anchorage. Design/methodology/approach The authors study the dairy cluster in the south-west of Uruguay, where one of the country’s main industries is located. The authors use data from semi-structured interviews applied to managing directors of 40 dairy industrial firms. The authors analyze the collaboration network among firms and industry support organizations. Using a community detection algorithm, the authors identify strategic groups of firms and organizations within the network. The authors analyze information from the interviews to delve deeper into the strategies pursued by actors in each of these sub-groups. Findings The four groups identified by the algorithm respond to particular logics associated not only with collaborative behavior, but also with territorial distribution and competitive strategies pursued by firms. In particular, these communities show a positive association between the centrality of their nodes in the network, the size of their firms, their export orientation and their innovative capacity. These associations indicate the co-existence, within the cluster, of different local productive systems and other forms of productive organization. Originality/value The paper illustrates how different strategies of firms within a cluster can be understood using social network analysis. This approach is particularly interesting in agri-food clusters, where their wider dispersion in the territory often implies their firms following different collaborative and competitive strategies, and different levels of territorial anchorage.
Autor/es: Colacce, Maira; Marroig, Alejandra ; Sánchez, Guillermo; Córdoba, Julia, Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
Editorial: BMC Geriatrics
Background Older adults living in the community may have daily needs for help to perform different types of activities. In developing countries, older adults face the additional challenge of lacking sufficient economic means to face their increasing needs with ageing, and health and social policies may be under pressure. The aim of this study was to assess dependency in the older population from a developing country using a latent class approach to identify heterogeneity in the type of activities in which dependent older adults require help. Methods In this cross-sectional evaluation of dependency, we considered individuals aged 60 years and older from a nationally representative study (N = 5138) in Uruguay. We fitted latent class regressions to analyse dependency, measured by the need for help to perform Activities of Daily Living, adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics. Results Four latent classes were identified, 86.4% of the individuals were identified as non-dependent, 7.4% with help requirements to perform instrumental activities while individuals in the other two classes need help to perform all types of activities with different degrees (4.3 and 1.9%). Less educated women are more likely to be in the group with needs in instrumental activities. Conclusions The heterogeneous patterns of dependency have to be addressed with different services that meet the specific needs of dependent older adults.
Editorial: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
Using an experimental-questionnaire method combined with randomized information treatments, this paper analyzes the drivers of individual inequality aversion. We elicit inequality aversion by asking a sample of more than 1800 Uruguayan students to choose a society for a hypothetical grandchild. Participants make a sequence of choices between imagined societies characterized by varying levels of average income and income inequality. In addition, we prime competing narratives regarding the sources of inequality in society. The main findings are that (1) the prevalence of inequality aversion is high: Most participants’ choices revealed inequality-averse preferences; (2) inequality aversion is increasing in the position of the hypothetical grandchild in the income distribution, like a normal good; (3) participants are more likely to accept inequality when it results from effort rather than luck independently of their grandchild’s position; (4) the effect of social mobility on inequality aversion depends on the grandchild’s income position: Mobility opportunities reduce (increase) inequality aversion if participants expect their grandchild’s income to increase (fall). The latter result is consistent with the idea that mobility may impact the desire for more or less redistribution through rational expectation and risk aversion.
Autor/es: Lanzilotta, Bibiana; Brida, Juan Gabriel; Moreno, Leonardo
Editorial: Tourism Economics
This study models the relative expenditure of tourists in terms of budget allocation according to their dependence on a group of covariates. A model that captures how tourist distributes its budget among the diverse items is introduced to characterize and compare different types of tourists according to their relative expenditure patterns. For the empirical exercise, data for the period 2014–2019 collected by the Ministry of Tourism from the Inbound Tourism survey in Uruguay is analyzed by means of the compositional data analysis and modeled by a Dirichlet regression. The empirical results show that the expending pattern in accommodation, food, and others items depend on the destination, the season, the nationality, and the type of accommodation. In addition, the inferential analysis reveals different typologies of tourist, providing a novel interpretation of the tourist behavior from the microeconomic perspective.
Autor/es: Amarante, Verónica ; Zurbrigg, Julieta
Editorial: World Development Perspectives
We analyze the share and quality of publications of southern-based authors in top development economic journals between 1990 and 2019. We consider researchers as southern if they are based in low, lower-middle and upper-middle income countries (LIMCs), according to the World Bank country classification. Our results indicate that 74% of publications in top development journals are written by researchers not based in southern countries. Northern-based researchers’ prevalence is amplified by the fact that they are more often cited than their counterparts from developing countries. Southern-based researchers’ marginalization is also shown by the composition of editorial teams in development journals: only 17% of the editors of our selected journals are based in LIMCs. Interestingly, we find a strong correlation between the composition of the editorial board and the origin of publications. Despite the lower share of southern-based researchers, collaborations between northern- and southern-based researchers have grown significantly in the past thirty years, suggesting a potential decline in the relative academic isolation of southern scholars that may work to boost quality research and access to academic development.
Editorial: REDES. Revista Hispana para el Análisis de Redes Sociales
La literatura sobre redes colaborativas y de políticas ha identificado que las mismas pueden ir más allá de las limitaciones de los diseños de políticas tradicionales, de modo de abordar problemas complejos como la pobreza, la deserción educativa o la exclusión. Sin embargo, no todas las redes permiten respuestas integrales, ya que además de un alto nivel de colaboración, la integralidad requiere la existencia de relaciones intersectoriales (o no exclusivamente intrasectoriales). Se analiza una red de organizaciones dedicadas al diseño e implementación de políticasen una ciudad con alta incidencia de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica en Uruguay. Se realizan análisis de redes sociales de las estructuras relacionales de las organizaciones. En primer lugar, se describen las características principales de la red. En segundo lugar, se calculan medidas de segregación para probar el nivel de asociación de la estructura de las relaciones con respecto a las características sectoriales de las organizaciones o si son independientes del sector al que pertenecen. En este caso, la red permitiría una respuesta integral a los problemas abordados por las políticas.
Editorial: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics
The present study focuses on gender differences in job satisfaction as reported by highly educated professors who hold a doctorate at the public university in Uruguay. The data allows us to distinguish between fourteen areas of job satisfaction: wage, benefits, security, location, labor conditions, autonomy, promotion opportunities, intellectual challenge, responsibility, management and administrative support tasks, working environment, contribution to society, social status, infrastructure, as well as overall job satisfaction. After controlling for selection by sector of activity, an issue not commonly addressed in previous studies, our findings stress that female PhD holders report a lower satisfaction with some aspects of their job. For five of the ten domain satisfactions in which gender disparities were observed, as well as overall job satisfaction, dissatisfaction can be explained by differences in observable characteristics: wages, intellectual challenge, labor conditions, infrastructure, and responsibility, as well as overall job satisfaction. For five other satisfaction domains, i.e. autonomy, promotion opportunities, administrative tasks, security, and contribution to society, we are unable to explain the lower satisfaction levels among women, although plausible explanations point to unobservable characteristics. This is surprising given the nature of the sample, i.e. doctorate holders working at the public university.
Autor/es: Méndez, Luciana ; Ramos, Xavier
Editorial: Education Economics
We model schooling as a sequential process and examine why some children are left behind. We focus on the factors that explain selection at early stages of the education system. Our findings for Uruguay suggest that long-term factors, such as parental background or ethnicity matter across all education stages while the effect of short-term factors, such as family income, wear out as individuals progress in the education system, suggesting a severe selection process at early stages.
Autor/es: Méndez, Luciana ; Vigorito, Andrea ; Pellegrino, Adela, Robaina, Sofía
Editorial: Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa
Este artículo analiza las trayectorias académicas y laborales de las y los doctores uruguayos en ciencias sociales y humanidades, con base en información del Primer Censo de Doctores en Uruguay, realizado en 2017. El caso uruguayo combina un desarrollo tardío de los posgrados, con altas tasas de emigración. El trabajo explora aspectos contextuales, institucionales y ocupacionales. Los resultados indican que 90% de las y los doctores en las áreas de interés obtuvo su título en el exterior y 70% reside en Uruguay. La proporción de mujeres aumenta significativamente en las generaciones recientes. La desocupación es baja y la mayoría trabaja en instituciones académicas. En algunas disciplinas el desempeño profesional es mayor, en tanto que las humanidades enfrentan fuertes dificultades para la inserción en instituciones de investigación a tiempo completo. Las diferencias se reflejan en la satisfacción laboral reportada.
Autor/es: Amarante, Verónica ; Colacce, Maira; Pilar Manzi
Editorial: Latin American Research Review
This article considers how changes in Latin American countries’ age structures may affect their long-term economic performance through the impact on labor supply, dependency ratios, and productivity. It analyzes fourteen Latin American countries using population projections for 2015–2050 and considering three scenarios. The basic scenario assumes constant sex- and age-specific behavior concerning employment, while the other two scenarios imply increases in female activity rates and significant human capital accumulation. The results illustrate the heterogeneity of Latin American countries. In some of them, major productivity increases can only be achieved through substantial changes in the incorporation of women into the labor market, and especially in the educational level of the population as a whole. However, in most of the region’s countries, the demographic factor is still favorable and there is scope to exploit the demographic dividend.
Editorial: Cooperativismo & Desarrollo
Este trabajo tiene como objetivo explorar la relación entre cooperativismo agrario y desarrollo territorial en Uruguay. Se presenta un marco conceptual que argumenta sobre los importantes puntos de encuentro que existen entre ambos enfoques, utilizando como nexo la noción de desarrollo endógeno, asociada a la construcción de capacidades locales. La metodología consiste en un análisis descriptivo y exploratorio, con perspectiva histórica. Las fuentes de información son de tipo bibliográfica y documental, información secundaria disponible y entrevistas a informantes calificados. Se busca describir y comprender cómo el cooperativismo agrario ha contribuido al desarrollo territorial rural en Uruguay. Primero se analiza la historia y evolución del movimiento cooperativo uruguayo, para luego profundizar en el cooperativismo agrario, sus orígenes, casos más representativos y evolución. Los resultados muestran una contribución positiva de las cooperativas agrarias al desarrollo territorial, en buena medida apuntaladas por la política pública. Las cooperativas permiten la vinculación competitiva del territorio con los mercados internacionales pero protegiendo a los sistemas productivos locales de ser absorbidos y diluidos dentro del esquema del capital transnacional. A su vez, favorecen capacidades endógenas de innovación y la construcción de capital social local y redes que son la base para las estrategias locales de desarrollo.
Editorial: Investigaciones en Historia Económica
Se presentan las primeras estimaciones del producto regional en Uruguay durante la Primera Globalización (desde la década de 1870 hasta los años previos a la Primera Guerra Mundial). Los resultados permiten identificar una tendencia descendente e irregular de la desigualad regional del producto per cápita consistente con un proceso de convergencia de ingresos entre departamentos. La irregularidad de la trayectoria permitiría corroborar, entonces, la actuación de fuerzas centrífugas y centrípetas alternado influencias durante el período. Las fuerzas que tendieron a desconcentrar la producción fueron la combinación de abundantes recursos naturales aptos para la producción ganadera en todo el territorio con la reducción de los costos de transporte que habría permitido volcar con fluidez la producción agropecuaria a Montevideo y, a través de su puerto, al mercado mundial. Las fuerzas centrípetas habrían respondido a un proceso caracterizado por la sostenida importancia de Montevideo como centro urbano y administrativo, mercado de bienes y servicios y centro dinámico del mercado laboral nacional. A ello se habría sumado la creciente importancia de la actividad comercial y financiera (y sus potencialidades para viabilizar el desarrollo industrial) en torno a Montevideo, la cual fue interrumpida por la crisis económica y financiera de 1890-1891. De hecho, esta actuó como una fuerza igualadora del período. El resultado fue abrir el siglo xx con niveles de desigualdad regional inferiores a los registrados en la década de 1870.
Autor/es: Amarante, Verónica ; Colacce, Maira; Scalase, Federico
Editorial: Journal of International Devolopment
Assumptions of the traditional income poverty measure have strong implications not confirmed by the evidence, but this measure is still widely used in gender poverty analysis. We explore the boundaries of the gender analysis of monetary poverty based on the currently available information (household surveys for 16 Latin American countries). Our results indicate that departing from the conventional methodology has more influence on women than men, worsening female indicators. Households emerge as crucial venues for income support for low income partnered women and for women with no access to any income, whose autonomy is seriously compromised due to this fact.
Autor/es: Amarante, Verónica ; Moraes, María Inés; Marisa Bucheli, Tatiana Pérez
Editorial: Cuadernos de Economía
We analyse gender gaps in published works on economics in Uruguay. First of all, we describe the evolution of the professional context and female participa-tion in the discipline. We then provide an empirical analysis of the research output based on two databases: one containing working papers and technical documents and the other including articles published in journals. The main results are: a) men produce more published articles than women but there is no gender gap in working papers; b) women and men are unevenly represented throughout different fields; c) collaboration with non-local authors is more likely among men than women; d) non-local co-authorship is strongly associated with the gender gap in journal arti-cles production.
Editorial: Studies in Family Planning
Between 2016 and 2018, we observe in Uruguay a steep decline of almost 20 percent in the number of total births, leading to the collapse of the adolescent fertility rate after decades of relative stagnation. We estimate the quantitative contribution on birth rates, especially teen births, of a policy of expanded availability of subdermal contraceptive implants. We exploit the expansion schedule of a large-scale policy of free-of-charge access to subdermal implants in the country's public health system through an event study to capture causal effects. We use detailed birth administrative records for the past 20 years. We document an average reduction of 3 percent in the birth rate in public health facilities across the two years after the policy was implemented in each department. These reductions were notably higher among teens and first births. Although changes in women's fertility decisions are a multicausal phenomenon, we claim that the expanded availability of subdermal contraceptive implants accounted for one-third of the teen and young women's birth collapse.
Editorial: Review of Economics of the Household
We examine levels of enforcement of conditions for two transfer programs and estimate how they affect teenagers’ time allocation, and in particular, time devoted to school attendance, labor supply and home production. We develop a structural discrete choice model in which young individuals and their parents decide how to allocate their time, including whether to attend school. They also choose how many hours to work in the market, how much time to devote to home production and leisure activity. To estimate the model, we use household panel data which combines administrative records and surveys covering the period of 2005–2012 in Uruguay, during which two consecutive CCT programs were introduced with different designs. Our model captures the share of individuals who are in school, who are working, who are both studying and working, as well as those who neither study nor work; we also capture the share and number of hours devoted to market work and home production, and individuals’ GPA distribution. The policy experiments performed indicate that school attendance can be increased by raising the level of enforcement and by sending the cash transfer to the teenagers rather than to their parents.
Autor/es: Carriquiry, Miguel; Elobeid, A., Dumortier, J.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Agricultural Economics
This analysis quantifies changesin global agricultural markets for maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat due to yield changes triggered by climate change. The scenarios include four representative concentration pathways (RCP), five global climate models, three shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) capturing differences in population levels and economic growth, and enhanced COurn:x-wiley:01695150:media:agec12660:agec12660-math-0001-fertilization. Yield projections incorporate the influence of SSPs on nitrogen application and agricultural technology. Depending on the SSP and comparing the RCP8.5 ensemble yields (with COurn:x-wiley:01695150:media:agec12660:agec12660-math-0002-fertilization) to a no climate change scenario in 2050, price increases for maize (61.3%–80.9%), soybeans (36.7%–51.7%), and wheat (5.4%–11.1%) are observed. Large wheat producers in temperate regions expand wheat production under climate change. Rice benefits from COurn:x-wiley:01695150:media:agec12660:agec12660-math-0003 fertilization resulting in a relatively uniform price decrease across scenarios of 19.5%–19.9%. Cropland expansion between 2015 and 2050 is lowest for the high economic growth scenario. Depending on the crop and region, there are significant reductions in production especially for maize. Absolute changes in trade patterns are most pronounced for wheat and least for rice. Using trade as a means to dampen the negative welfare effects of climate change will be important and so is economic growth.
Autor/es: Lanzilotta, Bibiana; Brida, J., Rosich, L.
Editorial: Economics Bulletin
This study analyses the common trends between expectation indicators of producers of the manufacturing sector in Uruguay and its linkage with economic growth. To this end, four expectation indicators are constructed from qualitative data obtained using surveys collected by the Camaras de Industrias del Uruguay (CIU) for the period 1998- 2017. Common trends are identified by estimating Multivariate Structural Models on the expectations indicators (categorized in four groups according to the firm specialization and international insertion). Its dynamical linkage with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth is analyzed by applying non-parametric cointegration and causality tests. Results give evidence of bidirectional causality between expectations and GDP growth in the long, while in the short-run causality goes uniquely from the exporters' sentiment indicator trend to the GDP growth. The expectation trend of the more tradable and exposed to international competition sectors (exporter industries) is the one that drives overall industrials' expectations in Uruguay. More importantly, we cannot reject nonlinearity in the long-run relationship between the underlying trend of exporters' expectations and Uruguayan GDP growth, which shows that it may be a useful predictor of GDP growth provided that this nonlinearity is taken into account.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Regional Studies
Brokers play a critical role in the evolution of innovation systems by accessing and diffusing external knowledge. However, while brokers’ activity allows benefits for the entire system, it entails costs for those who play the broker role. Using patent data to analyse inter-city networks in Latin America, we identify broker cities and estimate the effects of brokerage on patenting outcomes between 2006 and 2017. Our findings reveal that cities holding a central position in the network show higher patenting activity; however, being a broker, particularly connecting Latin American cities with the rest of the world, negatively influences patenting outcomes.
Editorial: Social Indicators Research
​This paper offers an updated picture of the nature of deprivation in old age in Latin America, as well as an analysis of its different dimensions. Based on harmonized cross-sectional social protection surveys for Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Uruguay we estimate and compare multidimensional poverty indices for older adults. We consider the following dimensions: housing, health, labor and social security, and education. Our results illustrate the disparities in multidimensional poverty of the older people across the region. We also provide original evidence about deprivations in health that go beyond health coverage and underline the importance of Social security at older ages. The general picture indicates that Housing is the dimension with lower deprivation rates, whereas Health presents the higher levels of deprivation. Chile and Uruguay stand out for their relatively good performance in Labor and Social Security.
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