Editorial: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy Vol. 8, Issue 2
Using a unique array of program and social security administrative micro-data matched to longitudinal vital statistics in Uruguay, we estimate that participation in a generous social assistance program led to a sizable reduction in the incidence of low birthweight.
Editorial: IZA Journal of Labor & Development, vol 5. num. 13
During the first decade of the twentieth century, the Uruguayan labor market showed a significant decline in wage inequality and in the incidence of labor informality, while similar changes also took place in other Latin American countries. These trends were observed in a period of strong economic dynamism.
Editorial: Revista de Economía y Estadìstica, v.: 50 1 y 2 2012, p.: 25 - 58, 2015 ISSN: 00348066
In this work, we analyze the effect of export destinations on Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of manufacturing Uruguayan firms for the period 1997-2006. We study two effects: self-selection and learning by exporting. There is evidence of self-selection with a stronger effect for firms exporting to developed countries. Nevertheless, applying transition groups methodology in order to mitigate endogeneity issues, there is no evidence that exporting to developed countries enhances productivity through learning by exporting. However, evidence of learning by exporting is found for those firms starting to export to less developed countries. These findings suggest an international strategy through which firms reach gains in productivity exporting to markets with lower entry cost, and once they have learned and improved their productivity, are in a better position to enter more developed countries.
Editorial: Estudios regionales en economía, población y desarrollo, v.: 32 32 2016, p.: 1 - 34, 2016 ISSN: 20073739
This paper analyses the effects of increased competition resulting from the creation of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) on productivity, employment and wages for the Uruguayan manufacturing sector at the plant level.
We use impact evaluation techniques, namely regressions and matching and difference-in-differences estimation for the period 1988-1995.
One of the most robust findings is that increased trade liberalization seems to improve total factor productivity. Furthermore, we find reductions in employment driven mainly by the decrease in blue collars, increases in wages and a reduction in the wage gap between white and blue collars as a result of increased trade exposure. Thus, the increase in productivity along with the unemployment of unskilled workers would indicate a room for training, labour and social policies in order to countervail the negative impact of trade liberalization on less qualified workers.
Editorial: Small Business Economics, v.: 47 2016 1, p.: 115 - 137, 2016
In an increasingly globalized word, exporting plays a central role for economic growth and poverty reduction, particularly in small open economies..In this work we test the hypothesis that a rise in investment favors entrance in export markets and increases exports among previously exporting firms. We address causal links through impact evaluation techniques for observational data. We examine the binary case as well as continuous treatment analysis for investment as treatment. The analysis is conducted for a panel of Uruguayan manufacturing firms for the period 1997-2008. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of our approach for a Latin American economy, and the relatively long time span of our data makes it possible a better characterization of new entrants and firms with changing export behavior. Also, our data appears to be richer, including information to estimate total factor productivity, and R&D and training investments, which provide better controls for confounding factors. We find evidence that investments "cause" exports and export orientation, which provides a rationale for carefully designing investment promotion policies rather than focusing on other export support policies.
This article argues that existing empirical work has failed to adequately deal with this possibility. In light of this, it applies a simultaneous equation model which accounts for the joint determination of these three variables, to a sample of 23 OECD countries.
Editorial: El Trimestre Económico, (enero-marzo 2016), 329
El objetivo del trabajo es explicar el comportamiento de la inflación en Uruguay durante el largo plazo (1870-2010). Se utiliza un modelo de inflación monetaria pues se entiende que la trayectoria de largo plazo de la inflación debería estar determinada por las condiciones de equilibrio en el mercado de dinero.
Editorial: Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Municipales, Nº12, año VI
El artículo analiza las relaciones inter-organizacionales en el contexto de la descentralización política a través de un estudio de caso en el barrio Peñarol, en la ciudad de Montevideo. Se aplicaron técnicas de análisis de redes sociales para dar cuenta de la red de vínculos organizacionales. A través de dicho análisis se pretende dar cuenta de los procesos de autonomía que la descentralización promueve y limita.
Editorial: Ecological Economics, Volume 120, December
We provide experimental evidence on the effects of social disapproval by peers among communities of Uruguayan small-scale fishers exploiting a common pool resource (CPR). The findings indicate that effective peer punishment requires coordination to prevent antisocial targeting and to clarify the social signal conveyed by punishment.
Editorial: Australian Economic History Review, DOI: 10.1111/aehr.12092
Settler economies are characterised by abundant natural resources, but these are not homogeneous between countries. There is very little literature about the economic development of settler economies that identifies differences within the club in terms of natural resources. We look for differences in energy endowments in New Zealand and Uruguay considering coal and suitable conditions for hydroelectric generation.
Editorial: Revista de Economía, Segunda Época, Vol. 22, Nº 2. Montevideo, Noviembre 2015
El principal objetivo de este documento es estimar el valor agregado bruto (VAB) agropecuario regional de Uruguay en el largo plazo. Para ello se proponen estimaciones de VAB por departamento (19 unidades administrativas) de la actividad agropecuaria cubriendo un siglo de historia uruguaya e identificando los principales hechos estilizados que dan cuenta de la localización territorial de la producción agrícola y pecuaria en el largo plazo.
The construction sector, whether privately or publicly financed, is characterized by potentially large rents and government intervention making it vulnerable to corruption. Consistent with this, both case-study and survey evidence has been provided highlighting the problem of malfeasance in this sector. In this article, we test the proposition that a bigger construction sector is likely to be inimical to clean government based on a panel of 42 countries over the period 1995–2011.
En este artículo se identifican los patrones distributivos que predominaron en las economías de reciente asentamiento europeo (Argentina, Australia, Canadá, Chile, Nueva Zelanda, Uruguay) durante la Primera Globalización (1870-1913).
Editorial: Revista de Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 33
Para entender la evolución económica uruguaya de largo plazo se vuelve crucial interpretar su desempeño exportador durante la Primera Globalización. La falta de precisión de los datos oficiales, especialmente los precios oficiales utilizados, demanda un ajuste de la serie de exportaciones de Uruguay.
Does workplace democracy engender greater pay equality? Are high-ability individuals more likely to quit egalitarian organisational regimes? The paper revisits this long-standing issue by analyzing the interplay between compensation structure and quit behavior in the distinct yet underexplored institutional setting of worker-managed firms.
Editorial: Papers in Regional Science. Volume 94, Issue 1, March
In this paper we consider how government quality mediates the relationship between fiscal decentralization and regional disparities. Previous work has argued that fiscal decentralization has the potential to reduce income differences across regions but that this potential may not be realized because of governance problems associated with sub-national authorities. Our empirical evidence based on a sample of 24 OECD countries over the period 1984 to 2006 lends a measure of support to this idea. We find that fiscal decentralization promotes regional convergence in high government quality settings but, worryingly, it leads to wider regional disparities in countries with poor governance.