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Autor/es: Amarante, Verónica ; Moraes, María Inés; Marisa Bucheli, Tatiana Pérez
Editorial: Cuadernos de Economía
We analyse gender gaps in published works on economics in Uruguay. First of all, we describe the evolution of the professional context and female participa-tion in the discipline. We then provide an empirical analysis of the research output based on two databases: one containing working papers and technical documents and the other including articles published in journals. The main results are: a) men produce more published articles than women but there is no gender gap in working papers; b) women and men are unevenly represented throughout different fields; c) collaboration with non-local authors is more likely among men than women; d) non-local co-authorship is strongly associated with the gender gap in journal arti-cles production.
Editorial: Studies in Family Planning
Between 2016 and 2018, we observe in Uruguay a steep decline of almost 20 percent in the number of total births, leading to the collapse of the adolescent fertility rate after decades of relative stagnation. We estimate the quantitative contribution on birth rates, especially teen births, of a policy of expanded availability of subdermal contraceptive implants. We exploit the expansion schedule of a large-scale policy of free-of-charge access to subdermal implants in the country's public health system through an event study to capture causal effects. We use detailed birth administrative records for the past 20 years. We document an average reduction of 3 percent in the birth rate in public health facilities across the two years after the policy was implemented in each department. These reductions were notably higher among teens and first births. Although changes in women's fertility decisions are a multicausal phenomenon, we claim that the expanded availability of subdermal contraceptive implants accounted for one-third of the teen and young women's birth collapse.
Editorial: Review of Economics of the Household
We examine levels of enforcement of conditions for two transfer programs and estimate how they affect teenagers’ time allocation, and in particular, time devoted to school attendance, labor supply and home production. We develop a structural discrete choice model in which young individuals and their parents decide how to allocate their time, including whether to attend school. They also choose how many hours to work in the market, how much time to devote to home production and leisure activity. To estimate the model, we use household panel data which combines administrative records and surveys covering the period of 2005–2012 in Uruguay, during which two consecutive CCT programs were introduced with different designs. Our model captures the share of individuals who are in school, who are working, who are both studying and working, as well as those who neither study nor work; we also capture the share and number of hours devoted to market work and home production, and individuals’ GPA distribution. The policy experiments performed indicate that school attendance can be increased by raising the level of enforcement and by sending the cash transfer to the teenagers rather than to their parents.
Autor/es: Carriquiry, Miguel; Elobeid, A., Dumortier, J.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Agricultural Economics
This analysis quantifies changesin global agricultural markets for maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat due to yield changes triggered by climate change. The scenarios include four representative concentration pathways (RCP), five global climate models, three shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) capturing differences in population levels and economic growth, and enhanced COurn:x-wiley:01695150:media:agec12660:agec12660-math-0001-fertilization. Yield projections incorporate the influence of SSPs on nitrogen application and agricultural technology. Depending on the SSP and comparing the RCP8.5 ensemble yields (with COurn:x-wiley:01695150:media:agec12660:agec12660-math-0002-fertilization) to a no climate change scenario in 2050, price increases for maize (61.3%–80.9%), soybeans (36.7%–51.7%), and wheat (5.4%–11.1%) are observed. Large wheat producers in temperate regions expand wheat production under climate change. Rice benefits from COurn:x-wiley:01695150:media:agec12660:agec12660-math-0003 fertilization resulting in a relatively uniform price decrease across scenarios of 19.5%–19.9%. Cropland expansion between 2015 and 2050 is lowest for the high economic growth scenario. Depending on the crop and region, there are significant reductions in production especially for maize. Absolute changes in trade patterns are most pronounced for wheat and least for rice. Using trade as a means to dampen the negative welfare effects of climate change will be important and so is economic growth.
Autor/es: Lanzilotta, Bibiana; Brida, J., Rosich, L.
Editorial: Economics Bulletin
This study analyses the common trends between expectation indicators of producers of the manufacturing sector in Uruguay and its linkage with economic growth. To this end, four expectation indicators are constructed from qualitative data obtained using surveys collected by the Camaras de Industrias del Uruguay (CIU) for the period 1998- 2017. Common trends are identified by estimating Multivariate Structural Models on the expectations indicators (categorized in four groups according to the firm specialization and international insertion). Its dynamical linkage with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth is analyzed by applying non-parametric cointegration and causality tests. Results give evidence of bidirectional causality between expectations and GDP growth in the long, while in the short-run causality goes uniquely from the exporters' sentiment indicator trend to the GDP growth. The expectation trend of the more tradable and exposed to international competition sectors (exporter industries) is the one that drives overall industrials' expectations in Uruguay. More importantly, we cannot reject nonlinearity in the long-run relationship between the underlying trend of exporters' expectations and Uruguayan GDP growth, which shows that it may be a useful predictor of GDP growth provided that this nonlinearity is taken into account.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Regional Studies
Brokers play a critical role in the evolution of innovation systems by accessing and diffusing external knowledge. However, while brokers’ activity allows benefits for the entire system, it entails costs for those who play the broker role. Using patent data to analyse inter-city networks in Latin America, we identify broker cities and estimate the effects of brokerage on patenting outcomes between 2006 and 2017. Our findings reveal that cities holding a central position in the network show higher patenting activity; however, being a broker, particularly connecting Latin American cities with the rest of the world, negatively influences patenting outcomes.
Editorial: Social Indicators Research
​This paper offers an updated picture of the nature of deprivation in old age in Latin America, as well as an analysis of its different dimensions. Based on harmonized cross-sectional social protection surveys for Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Uruguay we estimate and compare multidimensional poverty indices for older adults. We consider the following dimensions: housing, health, labor and social security, and education. Our results illustrate the disparities in multidimensional poverty of the older people across the region. We also provide original evidence about deprivations in health that go beyond health coverage and underline the importance of Social security at older ages. The general picture indicates that Housing is the dimension with lower deprivation rates, whereas Health presents the higher levels of deprivation. Chile and Uruguay stand out for their relatively good performance in Labor and Social Security.
Autor/es: Amarante, Verónica ; R.Burguer, J. Cockburn, C. Grewe, A. Kassouf, A. McKay, J.Zurbrigg
Fecha: 20-09-2021
Editorial: Applied Economic Letters
​We present evidence of how researchers from developing countries are represented in three areas of research: conference presentations, articles in journals, and citations. We find that the bulk of research on development and development policies in the South is conducted by researchers from the North. Southern universities represents 9% of conference presenters, while 57% of conference presenters are from Northern universities. There has been no evidence of improvements over time. Fewer than one in six of the articles published in top 20 development journals from 1990 to 2019 were by Southern researchers, while close to three-quarters were by Northern researchers. The remaining 11% were collaborations by Southern and Northern researchers. Additionally, there are also fewer citations per article for Southern-authored articles than for Northern-authored articles.
Fecha: 07-09-2021
Editorial: Revista Uruguaya de Historia Económica
En Uruguay, el Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales se elabora por primera vez en 1965, con series, anuales, que comienzan en 1955. Desde entonces se realizaron cuatro cambios de año base, además de una revisión, sin embargo, las estadísticas oficiales que aporta el Banco Central del Uruguay ofrecen series continuas y empalmadas sólo desde 1997. Para las décadas previas la información se encuentra de forma fragmentada en diversas publicaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer series consistentes temporalmente desde 1955 hasta el presente del PIB y los componentes desde el punto de vista del destino de la producción o enfoque del gasto. Se discuten las distintas técnicas de empalme, especialmente los métodos de interpolación y retropolación, y se calculan series anuales, continuas y consistentes temporalmente, del PIB y los componentes del gasto –exportaciones, importaciones, formación bruta de capital, gasto de consumo final del gobierno general y gasto de consumo final privado– a precios corrientes y constantes, desde 1955 hasta 2016. Se comparan los resultados que se obtiene al aplicar ambos métodos de empalme y se analizan los niveles y evolución de las series.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Review of Development Economics
This paper analyses the empirical trade-offs between equity and efficiency of various instruments of welfare state fiscal policies. To this end, we present and estimate different systems of structural equations and their error components through which these fiscal policies affect redistribution and economic growth. The empirical results, obtained by using a panel data of 35 high- and upper-middle-income countries over the period 1980–2014, suggest that not all policies depress economic growth rates. In relation to cash transfer variables, we can observe a significant empirical trade-off of old-age-related transfers. However, we do not find a significant equity–efficiency trade-off for working-age transfers. This variable has only a significant and positive effect in the redistribution equation, but does not affect the economic growth rate. If we consider measures of direct taxes, we find a significant and important trade-off for social contributions, and to a lesser extent for income taxes. We do not find a significant trade-off for capital taxes. These taxes only have a significant and negative unexpected effect on redistribution.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Journal of Scientometric Research
This paper analyzes international collaboration networks associated with invention and patenting in Latin America between 1970 and 2017. We use data from US patent records retrieved from the Patents View platform. We select patents with actors located in Latin American countries and create networks where nodes are countries and links represent collaboration among inventors and among patent owners located in different countries. We apply various social network analysis methods...
Autor/es: Azar, Paola
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Cliometrica
This paper examines the relationship between school provision and the political power of the president in Uruguay between 1914 and 1954. The empirical analysis relies on fixed effects panel estimations based on newly compiled information about the partisan orientation of legislative members, electoral competition and schooling diffusion at the department-level. Ceteris paribus, I find an association between school provision and the need of government to capture votes or to obtain further legislative support. The resource allocation initially benefitted government’s core voter departments and shifted to favor non-loyal districts as an answer to the increasing intra-party political conflicts. Against the traditional historical narrative, the results point out to an influence of political interests on the diffusion of mass schooling and suggest the use of school provision as a pork barrel good over the period.
Autor/es: Carriquiry, Miguel; Amani Elobeid; Jerome Dumortier; David Swenson; Dermot J. Hayes
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Journal of Agricultural Economics
China is a major importer of agricultural products and we examine retaliatory tariffs imposed by China on U.S. pork, soybeans, corn, and wheat. We use an agricultural trade model to determine the impacts on agricultural commodity markets and combine our results with an input‐output model to measure economic effects in the United States...
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: The Journal of Economic Inequality
In this paper we provide evidence on the empirical relevance of two notions of inequality aversion that have been explored in the literature: self-centered and non-self-centered inequality aversion. We used a flexible model and designed an experimental survey that allowed us to address jointly both of these notions of inequality aversion and to distinguish their relevance...
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: The Economic Journal
Based on detailed administrative tax records, we implement a bunching design to explore how individual taxpayers respond to personal income taxation in Uruguay. We estimate a very modest elasticity of taxable income at the first kink point (0.06) driven by a combination of gross labour income and deductions responses. Taxpayers use personal deductions more intensively close to the kink point and underreport income to the tax authority. Our results suggest that the efficiency costs of taxation are not necessarily large in contexts characterised by limited deduction opportunities. Policy efforts should be directed at broadening the tax base and improving enforcement capacity.
Autor/es: Goinheix, Sebastián; Martín Freigedo
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Municipales
La autonomía local y la relación entre niveles de gobierno ha sido un importante tópico de diversas disciplinas y de las políticas públicas. La aplicación reciente de un índice de autonomía local en Europa (Ladner, Keuffer y Baldersheim, 2016; Ladner et al., 2019), es un importante avance para la medición de la autonomía de forma multidimensional, incluyendo aspectos fiscales, políticos, jurídicos y organizacionales. El presente artículo amplía esta agenda de investigación con una perspectiva que permite captar las diferencias subnacionales de la autonomía local en Uruguay. Se analizan los patrones de los Gobiernos Departamentales en sus niveles y tipos de autonomía, así como se identifican las variables relevantes para las distintas dimensiones, aplicando técnicas exploratorias de análisis de datos.
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; Sharon Katzkowicz, Gabriela Pedetti, Martina Querejeta
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: World Development
We estimated the impact of the minimum wage on wages, unemployment, and formal-informal sector mobility for women in the domestic-work sector in Uruguay. Applying the density-discontinuity design developed by Jales (2017), we used cross-sectional data for the period 2006–2016 from the National Household Survey and found that the minimum wage had significant effects on labor outcomes, with almost 20% of women increasing their wages to reach the minimum. This effect was observed in both the formal and informal sector, though the latter was not covered by the policy. We also showed a decline in employment in the domestic sector as well as a significant effect on formal-informal sector mobility with negative impacts on formal employment. We present suggestive evidence those effects were offset by other labor policies undertaken in the analysis period.
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; G.Cruces
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Journal of Public Economics
The disincentive effects of social assistance programs on registered (or formal) employment are a first-order policy concern in developing and middle-income countries. We study the impact of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Uruguay on the employment of adult members in beneficiary households in a context of high informality. Our research design relies on the sharp discontinuity introduced by program eligibility rules around a poverty score threshold combined with longitudinal administrative data. We find reductions of about 6 percentage points (a 13% drop) in formal labor force participation among all beneficiaries and of 8.7 percentage points (a 19% drop) for single mothers. The implied elasticity of participation in the formal sector with respect to the net-of-tax rate is about 0.78 for the full sample and about 1.3 for single mothers...
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; Belal Fallah, Iman Saadeh,Arwa Abu Hashhash &Mohamad Hattawy
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: The Journal of Development Studies
Two interesting facts emerge from the Palestinian labour market. Educational attainment for women swiftly expanded during the 1999–2011 period, but the labour force participation rate for educated women stagnated––disproportionately so for young educated women. We investigate whether changes in labour demand has contributed to women’s sluggish labour force participation. Our empirical analysis used quarterly labour-force data published by Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics between 2005 and 2011. To explore the causal effect of labour demand shocks, we use Bartik instrumental variable approach. Our analysis provides evidence that changes in the labour demand for educated women, rather than improvement in overall demand, affect their labour force participation. This research has important policy implications regarding the economic empowerment of educated women in Palestine suggesting that improvement in overall demand may not benefit educated women and that boosting demand for this specific cohort is what matters.
Autor/es: Lara, Cecilia; Román, Carolina ; Centurión Irene
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: REVISTA D'INNOVACIÓ DOCENT UNIVERSITÀRIA
En este artículo se presenta la experiencia del uso de la rúbrica para evaluar tareas en entornos virtuales de aprendizaje incorporada a Economía de América Latina, asignatura avanzada de la carrera de la Licenciatura en Economía de la Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Se trata de una innovación docente aplicada este año a raíz del contexto de la pandemia, que implicó el diseño e implementación de una nueva herramienta para la evaluación del aprendizaje. Los resultados de su aplicación fueron muy positivos, tanto para el objetivo de evaluar los contenidos de la asignatura y el proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, como para la corrección por parte de los docentes, y la devolución a los estudiantes. Asimismo, la opinión de los estudiantes se mostró muy favorable en relación con su uso.
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