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Articulos en revistas arbitradas

 
 
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Autor/es: Carriquiry, Miguel; Amani Elobeid; Jerome Dumortier; David Swenson; Dermot J. Hayes
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Journal of Agricultural Economics
China is a major importer of agricultural products and we examine retaliatory tariffs imposed by China on U.S. pork, soybeans, corn, and wheat. We use an agricultural trade model to determine the impacts on agricultural commodity markets and combine our results with an input‐output model to measure economic effects in the United States...
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: The Journal of Economic Inequality
In this paper we provide evidence on the empirical relevance of two notions of inequality aversion that have been explored in the literature: self-centered and non-self-centered inequality aversion. We used a flexible model and designed an experimental survey that allowed us to address jointly both of these notions of inequality aversion and to distinguish their relevance...
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: The Economic Journal
Based on detailed administrative tax records, we implement a bunching design to explore how individual taxpayers respond to personal income taxation in Uruguay. We estimate a very modest elasticity of taxable income at the first kink point (0.06) driven by a combination of gross labour income and deductions responses. Taxpayers use personal deductions more intensively close to the kink point and underreport income to the tax authority. Our results suggest that the efficiency costs of taxation are not necessarily large in contexts characterised by limited deduction opportunities. Policy efforts should be directed at broadening the tax base and improving enforcement capacity.
Autor/es: Goinheix, Sebastián; Martín Freigedo
Editorial: Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Municipales
La autonomía local y la relación entre niveles de gobierno ha sido un importante tópico de diversas disciplinas y de las políticas públicas. La aplicación reciente de un índice de autonomía local en Europa (Ladner, Keuffer y Baldersheim, 2016; Ladner et al., 2019), es un importante avance para la medición de la autonomía de forma multidimensional, incluyendo aspectos fiscales, políticos, jurídicos y organizacionales. El presente artículo amplía esta agenda de investigación con una perspectiva que permite captar las diferencias subnacionales de la autonomía local en Uruguay. Se analizan los patrones de los Gobiernos Departamentales en sus niveles y tipos de autonomía, así como se identifican las variables relevantes para las distintas dimensiones, aplicando técnicas exploratorias de análisis de datos.
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; Sharon Katzkowicz, Gabriela Pedetti, Martina Querejeta
Editorial: World Development
We estimated the impact of the minimum wage on wages, unemployment, and formal-informal sector mobility for women in the domestic-work sector in Uruguay. Applying the density-discontinuity design developed by Jales (2017), we used cross-sectional data for the period 2006–2016 from the National Household Survey and found that the minimum wage had significant effects on labor outcomes, with almost 20% of women increasing their wages to reach the minimum. This effect was observed in both the formal and informal sector, though the latter was not covered by the policy. We also showed a decline in employment in the domestic sector as well as a significant effect on formal-informal sector mobility with negative impacts on formal employment. We present suggestive evidence those effects were offset by other labor policies undertaken in the analysis period.
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; G.Cruces
Editorial: Journal of Public Economics
The disincentive effects of social assistance programs on registered (or formal) employment are a first-order policy concern in developing and middle-income countries. We study the impact of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Uruguay on the employment of adult members in beneficiary households in a context of high informality. Our research design relies on the sharp discontinuity introduced by program eligibility rules around a poverty score threshold combined with longitudinal administrative data. We find reductions of about 6 percentage points (a 13% drop) in formal labor force participation among all beneficiaries and of 8.7 percentage points (a 19% drop) for single mothers. The implied elasticity of participation in the formal sector with respect to the net-of-tax rate is about 0.78 for the full sample and about 1.3 for single mothers...
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; Belal Fallah, Iman Saadeh,Arwa Abu Hashhash &Mohamad Hattawy
Editorial: The Journal of Development Studies
Two interesting facts emerge from the Palestinian labour market. Educational attainment for women swiftly expanded during the 1999–2011 period, but the labour force participation rate for educated women stagnated––disproportionately so for young educated women. We investigate whether changes in labour demand has contributed to women’s sluggish labour force participation. Our empirical analysis used quarterly labour-force data published by Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics between 2005 and 2011. To explore the causal effect of labour demand shocks, we use Bartik instrumental variable approach. Our analysis provides evidence that changes in the labour demand for educated women, rather than improvement in overall demand, affect their labour force participation. This research has important policy implications regarding the economic empowerment of educated women in Palestine suggesting that improvement in overall demand may not benefit educated women and that boosting demand for this specific cohort is what matters.
Autor/es: Lara, Cecilia; Román, Carolina ; Centurión Irene
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: REVISTA D'INNOVACIÓ DOCENT UNIVERSITÀRIA
En este artículo se presenta la experiencia del uso de la rúbrica para evaluar tareas en entornos virtuales de aprendizaje incorporada a Economía de América Latina, asignatura avanzada de la carrera de la Licenciatura en Economía de la Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Se trata de una innovación docente aplicada este año a raíz del contexto de la pandemia, que implicó el diseño e implementación de una nueva herramienta para la evaluación del aprendizaje. Los resultados de su aplicación fueron muy positivos, tanto para el objetivo de evaluar los contenidos de la asignatura y el proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, como para la corrección por parte de los docentes, y la devolución a los estudiantes. Asimismo, la opinión de los estudiantes se mostró muy favorable en relación con su uso.
Autor/es: Willebald, Henry ; Miguel Martí­n-Retortillo, Vicente Pinilla, Jackeline Velazco and Henry Willebald
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Revista de Hostoria Económica - Cambridge University Press
In this article, we discuss whether there was a single Latin American pattern of agricultural growth between 1950 and 2008. We analyse the sources of growth of agricultural production and productivity in ten Latin American countries. Our results show that the differences between these countries are too large to establish a single pattern for this region. However, certain common trends may be observed, such as the growing importance of labour productivity as a component of agricultural production growth and the increasing relevance of total factor productivity as a component of agricultural labour productivity growth.
Autor/es: Rodríguez Miranda, Adrián ; Camilo Vial Cossani; Alejandra Parrao.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Municipales
Las grandes desigualdades de América Latina hacen necesario incorporar un énfasis territorial al diagnóstico y recomendaciones de políticas para promover el desarrollo humano y sostenible. Para contribuir a tal fin se propone un índice compuesto y multidimensional de desarrollo regional aplicable a la realidad Latinoamericana. A través del índice se constata: 1) la existencia de grandes brechas territoriales de desarrollo; 2) una situación general de desarrollo regional medio a bajo; 3) una heterogeneidad en la distribución entre regiones de los factores que favorecen o aletargan el desarrollo. El índice muestra potencial como herramienta para identificar desafíos concretos en cada región y, en el marco de un diálogo multiactor y multinivel, contribuir a generar agendas de desarrollo territorial con impacto.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Cuadernos de Economía, 40(82), 193-226.
Throughout the world, stable regional patterns relating to private savings are hard to access. This article revisits the hypothesis that, as there is evidence of emula-tion patterns between consumers, there might be international (macroeconomic) “emulation”. We test demonstration effect theories exploiting international data on savings, incomes, and means of global exposure. We use two methods of media communication given that their penetration peaked at different times in the sample period: TV and internet were a means of discovering foreign consumption standards. With the resulting country panels, we find some evidence in favour of a statistically significant negative association for the demonstration effect.
Autor/es: Pittaluga, Lucía; Atilio Deana
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Open Journal of Political Science
During the COVID-19 pandemic, different countries are showing strengths and weaknesses of both healthcare systems and technology access. Until now in Uruguay, COVID-19 has been very much under control. Evidence-based policies, a strong public health care system, and scientific innovations are believed to be the main factors of success. Uruguayan evidence-based policies consider several inputs, including scientific, medical-epidemiological, economic, and educational aspects. A Scientific Advisory Group regularly makes specific recommendations on health and data science to a team composed of high caliber figures in the government. This team evaluates and submits the reports and suggestions to the President of the Republic, for making final decisions concerning different responses to the pandemic and the economic reactivation. Designing and implementing such evidence-based policies require a vigorous scientific community and a government that gives importance to scientific and technical assessments, and an effective knowledge on brokering mechanisms.
Autor/es: Katzkowicz, Noemí; María Laura Alzúa
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: World Development
Empirical literature analyzing the effect of pay-for-performance programs (P4P) for healthcare providers on maternal care and newborn health outcomes is scarce. In 2008, Uruguay’s Ministry of Public Health implemented a P4P called Metas Asistenciales (Healthcare Goals), a country-wide program that grants healthcare providers an economic incentive for complying with certain maternal and newborn healthcare goals. Health organizations use these funds to provide maternal and child health services. Using administrative records and a difference-in-difference methodology, we evaluate the effect of the Metas Asistenciales program on maternal and newborn health outcomes. ..
Autor/es: Lara, Cecilia; Marisa Bucheli
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Population Review
A vast international literature has provided evidence on the key role of women in household activities as well as a long-term trend of time reallocation toward a more egalitarian gender division of work. Our objective is to study the changes in gender gaps in home production and the labor market in Uruguay between 2006 and 2013. Our main conclusions are: i) the gender gaps for time spent in the labor market and home production decreased; ii) women increased their time allocated to the labor market and slightly reduced the time spent on home production, whereas the opposite is observable for men; iii) both women and men increased the time allocated to childcare, which resulted in a stable gender gap; iv) both women and men decreased the time spent on other household activities, narrowing the gender gap; and v) this less unequal division of time is also apparent when the gender gaps are measured in monetary terms, although the movement in home production prices did not contribute to reducing the gender gaps.
Fecha: 2021
Editorial: Economic History of Developing Regions
The increasing interest in economic diversification, technological sophistication, and production specialization again places structural change at the centre of the economic development theory. However, efforts to measure structural change from a long-run perspective remain scarce. We aim to fill this gap using a synthetic indicator that represents the dynamics of structural change in the long-run and allows us to identify different development patterns.
Fecha: 2020
Editorial: Industry & Innovation
Previous literature on innovation in developing countries has studied the relevance of public policies and support organisations, which can compensate for the weaknesses of local innovation networks. However, from a social network approach, this issue remains understudied. Aiming to fill this gap, this paper analyses the role of support organisations in four cluster networks of Uruguay.
Fecha: 2020
Editorial: Hacienda Pública Española
This paper analyses the cyclical fluctuations of public social cash transfers and its components in Uruguay over 1988/Q1 to 2016/Q3. The unobservable cyclical components are extracted from the observable time series using different empirical strategies. The results show that components of public social cash transfers are procyclical and lag the macroeconomics fluctuations. This enables us to say that instead of these cash transfers contributing to stabilizing the Uruguayan economy they have thereby aggravated the business cycle, and through various expenditure items expose the vulnerable groups of society to more adverse economic conditions
Autor/es: Galaso, Pablo; Jaromir Kovarik
Fecha: 2020
Editorial: Papers in Regional Science
The relationship between collaboration, geography and innovation has been analysed in economic geography. However, little is known from a social‐network perspective about whether different geographical levels of embeddedness may determine the way networks affect innovation. To address this issue, we compare the effects of regional vs. country‐level Spanish networks on future patenting. If we consider the country‐wide network, our statistical analysis reproduces the findings of the previous literature. However, negative effects prevail at the regional level, while the influence seems to be rather positive at the country level. We thus conclude that the embeddedness at different geographical scales exerts differing influence on innovation.
Autor/es: Galaso, Pablo; Ángeles Sánchez Díez
Fecha: 2020
Editorial: Applied Econometrics and International Development
This article studies the transnational corporations’ ownership and investment relationships between countries. Using Thomson Reuters SDC Platinum database on mergers and acquisitions and social network analysis techniques, the paper analyzes the international mergers and acquisitions network (IMAN), where vertices are 211 countries and edges represent the flow of international mergers and acquisitions between them. After elaborating the IMAN, it estimates the fitness of Borgatti and Everett (2000) core-periphery model to the network. Furthermore, it analyzes the fitness evolution between 1999 and 2013 and identifies core, semi-periphery and periphery countries. Results confirm the existence of a sharp and persistent coreperiphery structure in the relations between countries. The core is made of only 15 nations that are almost completely interconnected among them and responsible for most of investments in transnational corporations. 41 semi-peripheral countries are relatively well connected while achieving about one fourth of investments. Finally, the remaining 155 nations in the periphery are mostly disconnected among them and only receive marginal investments from the core and semi-periphery nations. These results reveal that the ownership and control of the means of production at the global level is driven by polarized and unequal relationships between countries.
Fecha: 2020
Editorial: Estudios de Economía
In this paper we analyze the impact of exchange rate uncertainty on export flows among a panel of 27 countries throughout the 1994/01-2014/12 period. In order to do this, we apply a panel vector autoregressive model approach. By dividing the panel into two subgroups that involve manufacturing-exporting and commodity-exporting economies, we observe a different effect of exchange rate uncertainty on exports. This has a negative impact in manufacturing-exporting countries, but does not affect commodity-exporting countries. This result appears to be explained by countries’ economics characteristics, involving the flexibility or rigidities of the export adjustment arising exchange rate uncertainty.
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