Grupos de Investigación

Articulos en revistas arbitradas

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Autor/es: Muinelo, Leonel; Kyriacou, A., L. and O. Roca-Sagalés
Editorial: Journal of European Social Policy. United Kingdom. Forthcoming
This article analyses the redistributive efficiency of social transfers and direct taxation in a panel of 28 developed economies during the period 1995-2010. In order to explore how redistribution is achieved through these fiscal policies, a two-stage approach is applied. First, we evaluate their redistributive efficiency–the degree of redistribution attained for a given level of transfers and taxes–by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We find lower redistributive efficiency in Southern Europe and the United States and higher efficiency levels in the Nordic and Central European countries and Australia. Second, we use panel regression analysis to identify the determinants of efficiency differences and reveal the crucial role of government quality as well as factors affecting the redistributive profile of fiscal policies.
Autor/es: Mordecki, Gabriela ; ; Silvia Altmark, Florencia Santiñaque
Editorial: Transitare, vol. 3(1), pp. 139 - 162.
La actividad turística se considera un sector clave en Uruguay, al igual que en el ámbito internacional, por su importancia en la generación de divisas, empleo y aporte al desarrollo local. Actores públicos y privados necesitan proyectar el número de turistas para poder realizar una planificación eficiente. A su vez, la rentabilidad de posibles oportunidades de inversión podría evaluarse mejor en base a proyecciones más precisas. Estas proyecciones también son necesarias a los efectos de posicionar un destino en relación a su competencia. Es por ello que el objetivo del presente trabajo es obtener un modelo que permita realizar proyecciones de corto plazo del número de turistas que ingresan al país. En particular, los argentinos y brasileños representan el 80% del total de turistas que ingresan a Uruguay, por ello se modela y proyecta su comportamiento para el año 2015 y 2016. Debido al comportamiento estacional de las series, se procede a realizar un análisis de series de tiempo mediante modelos SARIMA. Dicha metodología surge de la necesidad de elaborar modelos rigurosos pero parsimoniosos, que puedan ser fácilmente transmitidos y asimilados por las instituciones públicas y privadas, de modo que estos instrumentos sean de utilidad y se les pueda dar continuidad. Según los modelos ajustados a este caso, se prevé para el 2015 un aumento de la cantidad de turistas argentinos del 5,6% respecto al año 2014, mientras que para los brasileños se espera que crezcan un 5,1% en el mismo periodo.
Fecha: 2017
Editorial: Revista Uruguaya de Historia Económica, Vol VII (11):73-82
La “base de datos sobre la banca en Uruguay, 1929-1966” recoge la información disponible sobre las instituciones bancarias en funcionamiento y sobre los principales rubros del balance del sector para el período comprendido entre 1929 y 1966.
Fecha: 2017
Editorial: Revista Uruguaya de Historia Económica, VII (11): 43-72
Este documento analiza el panorama institucional del Contralor de Cambios hacia principios de los cuarenta –en que alcanza su consolidación– con la creación del Contralor de Exportaciones e Importaciones (enero/1941).
Fecha: 2017
Editorial: IZA Journal of Labor Policy 2017 6:8
This paper analyzes the participation path of workers in the formal and informal sectors throughout their lives and their pension eligibilities, as well as how the social security scheme can change the aforementioned participation path. High levels of informality have impacts on the benefits that workers receive, especially their pension benefits. I use Argentinean panel data from 1995 to 2008 to construct a structural discrete choice model which estimates the population’s labor path and their pension eligibilities. I find evidence that low-educated workers have difficulties to obtain a pension by the age of 65 and even by age 70. Policy experiments show that if the parameters are fixed as in the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) model, there is a slight reduction in the years worked in the formal sector and the percentage of workers who obtain a Full pension. If the pension requirements (minimum age and years contributing) are stricter, there is an increase in the years spent in the formal sector but it is not sufficient to achieve the benchmark level of pension coverage. If the requirements are looser, there is a reduction in the amount of time spent in formality to contribute up to the new threshold.
Autor/es: Díaz, Gastón
Fecha: 2017
Editorial: European Review of Economic History, Volume 21, Issue 3, 1 August 2017, Pages 280–301
Railways were an important factor in the expansion of Latin American economies in the late-nineteenth century. Due to their potential impact, governments often promoted railway construction through subsidies. The Uruguayan state offered profit guarantees to foreign railway companies and was able to attract massive investment in the railway sector. This paper asks the question of whether these railway guarantees were efficient, and estimates subsidized and unsubsidized private returns, as well as the social returns, of the Uruguayan railway network from 1869 to 1913
Autor/es: Vigorito, Andrea ; Verónica Amarante, Marco Manacorda y Edward Miguel
Editorial: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy Vol. 8, Issue 2
Using a unique array of program and social security administrative micro-data matched to longitudinal vital statistics in Uruguay, we estimate that participation in a generous social assistance program led to a sizable reduction in the incidence of low birthweight.
Autor/es: Arim, Rodrigo ; Amarante Verónica; Yapor Mijail
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: IZA Journal of Labor & Development, vol 5. num. 13
During the first decade of the twentieth century, the Uruguayan labor market showed a significant decline in wage inequality and in the incidence of labor informality, while similar changes also took place in other Latin American countries. These trends were observed in a period of strong economic dynamism.
Autor/es: Peluffo, Adriana ; Barboni, J., Melgarejo, H. y Ferrari, N.
Editorial: Revista de Economía y Estadìstica, v.: 50 1 y 2 2012, p.: 25 - 58, 2015 ISSN: 00348066
In this work, we analyze the effect of export destinations on Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of manufacturing Uruguayan firms for the period 1997-2006. We study two effects: self-selection and learning by exporting. There is evidence of self-selection with a stronger effect for firms exporting to developed countries. Nevertheless, applying transition groups methodology in order to mitigate endogeneity issues, there is no evidence that exporting to developed countries enhances productivity through learning by exporting. However, evidence of learning by exporting is found for those firms starting to export to less developed countries. These findings suggest an international strategy through which firms reach gains in productivity exporting to markets with lower entry cost, and once they have learned and improved their productivity, are in a better position to enter more developed countries.
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: Estudios regionales en economía, población y desarrollo, v.: 32 32 2016, p.: 1 - 34, 2016 ISSN: 20073739
This paper analyses the effects of increased competition resulting from the creation of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) on productivity, employment and wages for the Uruguayan manufacturing sector at the plant level. We use impact evaluation techniques, namely regressions and matching and difference-in-differences estimation for the period 1988-1995. One of the most robust findings is that increased trade liberalization seems to improve total factor productivity. Furthermore, we find reductions in employment driven mainly by the decrease in blue collars, increases in wages and a reduction in the wage gap between white and blue collars as a result of increased trade exposure. Thus, the increase in productivity along with the unemployment of unskilled workers would indicate a room for training, labour and social policies in order to countervail the negative impact of trade liberalization on less qualified workers.
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: Small Business Economics, v.: 47 2016 1, p.: 115 - 137, 2016
In an increasingly globalized word, exporting plays a central role for economic growth and poverty reduction, particularly in small open economies..In this work we test the hypothesis that a rise in investment favors entrance in export markets and increases exports among previously exporting firms. We address causal links through impact evaluation techniques for observational data. We examine the binary case as well as continuous treatment analysis for investment as treatment. The analysis is conducted for a panel of Uruguayan manufacturing firms for the period 1997-2008. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of our approach for a Latin American economy, and the relatively long time span of our data makes it possible a better characterization of new entrants and firms with changing export behavior. Also, our data appears to be richer, including information to estimate total factor productivity, and R&D and training investments, which provide better controls for confounding factors. We find evidence that investments "cause" exports and export orientation, which provides a rationale for carefully designing investment promotion policies rather than focusing on other export support policies.
Autor/es: Lanzilotta, Bibiana; Brida, Juan Gabriel; González, María Noel
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: Revista de Estudios Regionales
El presente trabajo analiza los determinantes de los flujos de turismo doméstico en Uruguay durante 2010-2012 en el contexto de los modelos gravitatorios. Los resultados muestran que los flujos turísticos dependen positivamente de la cantidad de población de cada departamento y negativa de la distancia que los separa. Los departamentos con mayores ingresos y la capital del país son los principales emisores de turistas. Se verifica también que los departamentos contiguos tienen mayores flujos turísticos entre sí. Asimismo, los departamentos con costas oceánicas o con alojamientos de buena calidad poseen una importante ventaja comparativa respecto a los restantes. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la racionalidad de que las estrategias de comunicación y promoción de productos y destinos turísticos, se orienten hacia Montevideo y los departamentos con mayores niveles de población e ingreso. Uno de los resultados no esperados del trabajo fue el impacto negativo en los flujos turísticos entrantes en los departamentos que poseen costas sobre el Río de la Plata.
Autor/es: Dean, Andrés
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: Journal of Comparative Economics - Vol. 44, Issue 2
This paper investigates the relationship between workplace democracy and job flows by comparing the behavior of worker-managed firms (WMFs) and conventional firms (CFs). The empirical analysis relies on high frequency administrative firm-level panel data from Uruguay over the period April 1996–July 2009. The main findings of the paper are that (1) WMFs exhibit much more stable job dynamics than CFs; (2) both types of firms have decreasing in age and increasing in size gross job creation profiles; (3) there are heterogeneous employment regimes within WMFs: job creation and destruction rates are high for hired workers and very low for members. This paper contributes to the literature on the role of institutions in shaping job flows. Our results have important implications for the understanding of the allocative efficiency effects of worker participation.
Autor/es: Muinelo, Leonel; Kyriacou, Andreas P.; Roca-Sagalés, Oriol
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: Regional Studies, Volume 50 Issue 4, D.O.I.: 10.1080/00343404.2016.1150992
This article argues that existing empirical work has failed to adequately deal with this possibility. In light of this, it applies a simultaneous equation model which accounts for the joint determination of these three variables, to a sample of 23 OECD countries.
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: Hacienda Pública Española/Review of Public Economics, 219 (4/2016); DOI: 10.7866/HPE-RPE.16.4.1
In this paper we explore the bidirectional relationship between intergovernmental transfers and regional income inequalities in Uruguay.
Autor/es: Román, Carolina ; Willebald, Henry ; Brum, Conrado
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: El Trimestre Económico, (enero-marzo 2016), 329
El objetivo del trabajo es explicar el comportamiento de la inflación en Uruguay durante el largo plazo (1870-2010). Se utiliza un modelo de inflación monetaria pues se entiende que la trayectoria de largo plazo de la inflación debería estar determinada por las condiciones de equilibrio en el mercado de dinero.
Autor/es: Carriquiry, Miguel; David R. Kanter; Marie Hélène Schwoob; Walter E. Baethgen; José E. Bervejillo; Achim Dobermann; Bruno Ferraro; Bruno Lanfranco; Mario Mondelli; Cecilia Penengo; Rodrigo Saldias; María Eugenia Silva; Juan Manuel Soares de Lima
Fecha: 2016
Editorial: Global Food Security
Fecha: 2015
Editorial: Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Municipales, Nº12, año VI
El artículo analiza las relaciones inter-organizacionales en el contexto de la descentralización política a través de un estudio de caso en el barrio Peñarol, en la ciudad de Montevideo. Se aplicaron técnicas de análisis de redes sociales para dar cuenta de la red de vínculos organizacionales. A través de dicho análisis se pretende dar cuenta de los procesos de autonomía que la descentralización promueve y limita.
Fecha: 2015
Editorial: Ecological Economics, Volume 120, December
We provide experimental evidence on the effects of social disapproval by peers among communities of Uruguayan small-scale fishers exploiting a common pool resource (CPR). The findings indicate that effective peer punishment requires coordination to prevent antisocial targeting and to clarify the social signal conveyed by punishment.
Autor/es: Willebald, Henry ; Bertoni, Reto
Fecha: 2015
Editorial: Australian Economic History Review, DOI: 10.1111/aehr.12092
Settler economies are characterised by abundant natural resources, but these are not homogeneous between countries. There is very little literature about the economic development of settler economies that identifies differences within the club in terms of natural resources. We look for differences in energy endowments in New Zealand and Uruguay considering coal and suitable conditions for hydroelectric generation.
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