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Bérgolo, Marcelo

 
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , De Rosa, Mauricio, Giaccobasso, Matías, Leites, Martín , Gabriel Burdin
Fecha: 2021
Based on detailed administrative tax records, we implement a bunching design to explore how individual taxpayers respond to personal income taxation in Uruguay. We estimate a very modest elasticity of taxable income at the first kink point (0.06) driven by a combination of gross labour income and deductions responses. Taxpayers use personal deductions more intensively close to the kink point and underreport income to the tax authority. Our results suggest that the efficiency costs of taxation are not necessarily large in contexts characterised by limited deduction opportunities. Policy efforts should be directed at broadening the tax base and improving enforcement capacity.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Sharon Katzkowicz, Gabriela Pedetti, Martina Querejeta
Fecha: 2021
We estimated the impact of the minimum wage on wages, unemployment, and formal-informal sector mobility for women in the domestic-work sector in Uruguay. Applying the density-discontinuity design developed by Jales (2017), we used cross-sectional data for the period 2006–2016 from the National Household Survey and found that the minimum wage had significant effects on labor outcomes, with almost 20% of women increasing their wages to reach the minimum. This effect was observed in both the formal and informal sector, though the latter was not covered by the policy. We also showed a decline in employment in the domestic sector as well as a significant effect on formal-informal sector mobility with negative impacts on formal employment. We present suggestive evidence those effects were offset by other labor policies undertaken in the analysis period.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , G.Cruces
Fecha: 2021
The disincentive effects of social assistance programs on registered (or formal) employment are a first-order policy concern in developing and middle-income countries. We study the impact of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Uruguay on the employment of adult members in beneficiary households in a context of high informality. Our research design relies on the sharp discontinuity introduced by program eligibility rules around a poverty score threshold combined with longitudinal administrative data. We find reductions of about 6 percentage points (a 13% drop) in formal labor force participation among all beneficiaries and of 8.7 percentage points (a 19% drop) for single mothers. The implied elasticity of participation in the formal sector with respect to the net-of-tax rate is about 0.78 for the full sample and about 1.3 for single mothers...
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Belal Fallah, Iman Saadeh,Arwa Abu Hashhash &Mohamad Hattawy
Fecha: 2021
Two interesting facts emerge from the Palestinian labour market. Educational attainment for women swiftly expanded during the 1999–2011 period, but the labour force participation rate for educated women stagnated––disproportionately so for young educated women. We investigate whether changes in labour demand has contributed to women’s sluggish labour force participation. Our empirical analysis used quarterly labour-force data published by Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics between 2005 and 2011. To explore the causal effect of labour demand shocks, we use Bartik instrumental variable approach. Our analysis provides evidence that changes in the labour demand for educated women, rather than improvement in overall demand, affect their labour force participation. This research has important policy implications regarding the economic empowerment of educated women in Palestine suggesting that improvement in overall demand may not benefit educated women and that boosting demand for this specific cohort is what matters.
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , De Rosa, Mauricio, Giaccobasso, Matías, Leites, Martín , Burdín, Gabriel: Burone Santiago
Año: 2021
Idioma: Inglés
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Ceni Gonzalez, Rodrigo , Giaccobasso, Matías, Cruces, Guillermo; Perez-Truglia, Ricardo
Año: 2021
Idioma: Inglés
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , De Rosa, Mauricio, Giaccobasso, Matías, Leites, Martín , Burdin, Gabriel
Año: 2021
Idioma: Inglés
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Ceni Gonzalez, Rodrigo , Giaccobasso, Matías, Cruces, Guillermo; Pérez-Truglia, Ricardo
Fecha: 2018
For some entities, the utility-maximizing evasion rate depends substantially on tax audit features, such as audit probabilities and penalty rates. Bergolo et al. (2017) document large misperceptions about these features. In this paper, we expand the analysis of survey data to explore potential sources of these misperceptions. Of all the channels that we explore, recent contact with audits best explains differences in misperceptions.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Galván, Estefanía
Fecha: 2017
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Galván, Estefanía
Año: 2017
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Cruces, Guillermo
Año: 2017
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Galván, Estefanía, Guillermo Cruces
Fecha: 2015
Marcelo Bergolo, Guillermo Cruces and Estafanía Galvan assess the impact of Uruguay’s means-tested family allowance programme Asignaciones Familiares-Plan de Equidad (AFAM-PE) on labour market outcomes ...
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Cruces, Guillermo
Año: 2015
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Cruces, Guillermo
Fecha: 2014
This article studies how social insurance programs shape individual's incentives to take up registered employment and to report earnings to the tax authorities. The analysis is based on a social insurance reform in Uruguay that extended healthcare coverage to the dependent children of registered private-sector workers. The identification strategy relies on a comparison between individuals with and without dependent children before and after the reform. The reform increased benefit-eligible registered employment by 1.6 percentage points (about 5% above the pre-reform level), mainly due to an increase in labor force participation rather than to movement from unregistered to registered employment. The shift was greater for parents with younger children and for cohabiting adults whose partners' jobs did not provide the couples' children with access to the benefit. Finally, the reform increased the incidence of underreporting of salaried earnings by about 4 percentage points (25% higher than the pre-reform level), mostly for workers employed at small firms. The increase in fiscal revenue from higher levels of registered employment was several orders of magnitude greater than the loss of revenue due to an increase in underreporting.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Alejo, Javier Carbajal, Fedora
Fecha: 2014
En el decenio de los 2000 la desigualdad del ingreso en la América Latina se redujo. Este artículo aplica una variante de la metodología de descomposición no paramétrica propuesta por Barros et al (2006, 2007) para evaluar la importancia de las fuentes de ingreso de los hogares, en particular la aportación de las transferencias públicas, en los cambios en la desigualdad de ingresos en los años 2000 en los países del Cono Sur: Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. Los resultados sugieren que los ingresos no laborales tuvieron una contribución significativa en los cambios en la desigualdad y que este efecto fue explicado principalmente por la consecuencia igualadora que tuvieron las fuentes públicas en los cuatro países analizados. La dinámica de los cambios en esta fuente de ingreso y su efecto en la desigualdad estuvo fuertemente asociada con la instrumentación o expansión de programas de transferencia no contributivos en el pasado decenio
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Cruces, Guillermo
Fecha: 2013
Several countries in Latin America are expanding their social-protection systems. There is an on-going debate about the trade-offs implied by these expansions, and by the resulting interactions between contributory and non-contributory programmes with informality in the labour market. This article analyses the potential incentive effects for formal and informal employment from a set of social-protection reforms implemented in Uruguay in the 1990s and 2000s. It presents empirical evidence of the expansion of health insurance to formal workers' dependants, and finds that this reform significantly increased formal employment. Finally, it discusses possible alternatives to extend social-protection systems while maintaining incentives for formal work in Latin America's labour markets.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Cruces, Guillermo
Fecha: 2013
This study contributes to the policy dabate on the consequence of the expansion of social safety nets in Latin America region by analyzing the potential effects on informality of recent extension of health coverage to the dependants of formal workers (i.e., to be registered and contribute to the social security system) in Uruguay as part of a 2008 policy reform.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Cruces, Guillermo; Ham, Andrés
Fecha: 2012
This article carries out a validation exercise of vulnerability measures as predictors of poverty at the aggregate and micro levels based on short and long term panel data for Argentina and Chile. It then compares their performance to that of deprivation indicators. The main findings indicate that while vulnerability measures are good predictors of poverty in the aggregate, the same does not occur at household level.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Leites, Martín , Salas, Gonzalo
Fecha: 2010
En este artículo se discute el concepto de pobreza desde dos enfoques, el monetario y el de las capacidades y funcionamientos.
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Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo , Carbajal, Fedora
Fecha: 2010
This paper analyzes the differences in real hourly labor income (RHLI) distributions between urban and rural workers for Uruguay in 2006. A quantile regression decomposition technique is applied in order to examine the urban-rural gap across the entire RHLI distribution. The urban-rural gap was primarily explained by the differences in the distribution of covariates along the entire distribution. Differences in distribution of returns favored the rural workers in most of the RHLI distribution although its contribution decreased across quantiles. The resulting gap in returns was most relevant for the worst off rural workers compared to the urban counterparts in both Montevideo and the rest of the urban centers.
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La relación entre el ciclo económico y el ciclo financiero en Uruguay: 1870-2019
Presenta: Maximiliano Presa (Instituto de Economía, FCEyA). 
Trabajo en coautoría con Henry Willebald (Instituto de Economía, FCEA).
 
Trabajo: La relación entre el ciclo económico y el ciclo financiero en Uruguay: 1870-2019

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