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DT 11/16 - La dinámica reciente del bienestar de los niños en Uruguay. Un estudio en base a datos longitudinales

ISSNISSN/ISBN: 1688-5090
This paper analyzes the evolution of multidimensional poverty and inequality between 2004 and 2011 in Uruguay, based on data from Estudio Longitudinal del Bienestar en Uruguay (ELBU). ELBU is a longitudinal study that follows children that were attending the first grade at public primary schools in 2004. The cohort lived its first years under a severe economic crisis that was followed by a rapid economic expansion. Children trajectories are assessed computing multidimensional poverty and inequality indexes in four basic domains: access to resources (durable goods and income) nutrition, education and housing conditions. Improvements can be noticed in both groups of indicators, although they are considerably lower than in the case of income. Specifically, increased access to resources coexisted with a reduction in school attendance. At the same time, disagreggations by sex and ethnicity of the household head uncover strong disparities. Strong persistence in income and multidimensional strata are found, particularly at the top and bottom of both distributions. The study also reveals that approximately 28% of children remained in multidimensional poverty in both periods (with k = 1), while 50% did so in terms of income. Households with heads of non-Afro-descent, higher educational levels and fewer members were the more able to overcome the poverty condition. In general, exits from income and multidimensional poverty were associated to increased employment among adults and income variations and to a lower extent to changes in household structure and access to public transfers. However, faced against the same triggering events, multidimensional poverty reacted to a lower extent.
 
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