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Grupos de Investigación

Economía Laboral

 


El grupo tiene como principal objetivo analizar el estado y dinámica de las principales variables del mercado de trabajo así como profundizar en ciertos tópicos tales como los vínculos entre el género y la inserción laboral, la evaluación de impacto de políticas que afectan el mercado de trabajo y el impacto de distintas instituciones del mercado de trabajo. Los estudios vinculados al mercado de trabajo en el Iecon son de larga data, por lo cual existe una extensa acumulación y el abordaje de los temas se realiza desde diversas perspectivas teóricas y con un enfoque macro y microeconómico.

 

Concretamente se están llevando adelante proyectos de investigación vinculados con las decisiones de oferta laboral e informalidad dentro del hogar; las políticas activas de empleo; los impactos de programas de asistencia social sobre distintas variables, en particular la informalidad; la participación de los trabajadores, los sindicatos y el desempeño de las empresas; los efectos del salario mínimo sobre el empleo; los costes laborales, los mercados de trabajo duales y los shocks asimétricos.

 

Asimismo el grupo de Economía Laboral está a cargo del curso de grado del mismo nombre de la FCEyA.

 

Integrantes:

 
  Publicaciones recientes del área
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Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Between 2016 and 2018, we observe in Uruguay a steep decline of almost 20 percent in the number of total births, leading to the collapse of the adolescent fertility rate after decades of relative stagnation. We estimate the quantitative contribution on birth rates, especially teen births, of a policy of expanded availability of subdermal contraceptive implants. We exploit the expansion schedule of a large-scale policy of free-of-charge access to subdermal implants in the country's public health system through an event study to capture causal effects. We use detailed birth administrative records for the past 20 years. We document an average reduction of 3 percent in the birth rate in public health facilities across the two years after the policy was implemented in each department. These reductions were notably higher among teens and first births. Although changes in women's fertility decisions are a multicausal phenomenon, we claim that the expanded availability of subdermal contraceptive implants accounted for one-third of the teen and young women's birth collapse.
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
We examine levels of enforcement of conditions for two transfer programs and estimate how they affect teenagers’ time allocation, and in particular, time devoted to school attendance, labor supply and home production. We develop a structural discrete choice model in which young individuals and their parents decide how to allocate their time, including whether to attend school. They also choose how many hours to work in the market, how much time to devote to home production and leisure activity. To estimate the model, we use household panel data which combines administrative records and surveys covering the period of 2005–2012 in Uruguay, during which two consecutive CCT programs were introduced with different designs. Our model captures the share of individuals who are in school, who are working, who are both studying and working, as well as those who neither study nor work; we also capture the share and number of hours devoted to market work and home production, and individuals’ GPA distribution. The policy experiments performed indicate that school attendance can be increased by raising the level of enforcement and by sending the cash transfer to the teenagers rather than to their parents.
Autor/es: Parada, Cecilia
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: español
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2021
Based on detailed administrative tax records, we implement a bunching design to explore how individual taxpayers respond to personal income taxation in Uruguay. We estimate a very modest elasticity of taxable income at the first kink point (0.06) driven by a combination of gross labour income and deductions responses. Taxpayers use personal deductions more intensively close to the kink point and underreport income to the tax authority. Our results suggest that the efficiency costs of taxation are not necessarily large in contexts characterised by limited deduction opportunities. Policy efforts should be directed at broadening the tax base and improving enforcement capacity.
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; Sharon Katzkowicz, Gabriela Pedetti, Martina Querejeta
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2021
We estimated the impact of the minimum wage on wages, unemployment, and formal-informal sector mobility for women in the domestic-work sector in Uruguay. Applying the density-discontinuity design developed by Jales (2017), we used cross-sectional data for the period 2006–2016 from the National Household Survey and found that the minimum wage had significant effects on labor outcomes, with almost 20% of women increasing their wages to reach the minimum. This effect was observed in both the formal and informal sector, though the latter was not covered by the policy. We also showed a decline in employment in the domestic sector as well as a significant effect on formal-informal sector mobility with negative impacts on formal employment. We present suggestive evidence those effects were offset by other labor policies undertaken in the analysis period.
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; G.Cruces
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2021
The disincentive effects of social assistance programs on registered (or formal) employment are a first-order policy concern in developing and middle-income countries. We study the impact of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Uruguay on the employment of adult members in beneficiary households in a context of high informality. Our research design relies on the sharp discontinuity introduced by program eligibility rules around a poverty score threshold combined with longitudinal administrative data. We find reductions of about 6 percentage points (a 13% drop) in formal labor force participation among all beneficiaries and of 8.7 percentage points (a 19% drop) for single mothers. The implied elasticity of participation in the formal sector with respect to the net-of-tax rate is about 0.78 for the full sample and about 1.3 for single mothers...
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; Belal Fallah, Iman Saadeh,Arwa Abu Hashhash &Mohamad Hattawy
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2021
Two interesting facts emerge from the Palestinian labour market. Educational attainment for women swiftly expanded during the 1999–2011 period, but the labour force participation rate for educated women stagnated––disproportionately so for young educated women. We investigate whether changes in labour demand has contributed to women’s sluggish labour force participation. Our empirical analysis used quarterly labour-force data published by Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics between 2005 and 2011. To explore the causal effect of labour demand shocks, we use Bartik instrumental variable approach. Our analysis provides evidence that changes in the labour demand for educated women, rather than improvement in overall demand, affect their labour force participation. This research has important policy implications regarding the economic empowerment of educated women in Palestine suggesting that improvement in overall demand may not benefit educated women and that boosting demand for this specific cohort is what matters.
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: Inglés
Autor/es: Alejo, Javier; Galvao, A. y Montes Rojas, G.
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2020
In this article, we present a new command, qcte, that implements several methods for estimation and inference for quantile treatment-effects models with a continuous treatment. We propose a semiparametric two-step estimator, where the first step is based on a flexible Box–Cox model, as the default model of the command. We develop practical statistical inference procedures using bootstrap. We implement some simulations to show that the proposed methods perform well. Finally, we apply qcte to a survey of Massachusetts lottery winners to estimate the unconditional quantile effects of the prize amount, as a proxy of nonlabor income changes, on subsequent labor earnings from U.S. Social Security records. The empirical results reveal strong heterogeneity across unconditional quantiles.
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: Ingés
Autor/es: Alejo, Javier; Bera, A., Montes Rojas, G. y Sosa-Escudero, W.
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2020
This paper develops generalized method of moments-based (GMM-based) Lagrange multiplier tests for nonlinear hypotheses that are robust to locally misspecified possibly nonlinear alternatives. The procedure is based on an initial consistent GMM estimator of the parameters under a given set of nonlinear restrictions. The new test for one particular set of nonlinear hypotheses is consistent and has correct asymptotic size independently of whether the other, also nonlinear hypotheses, are correct or locally misspecified. To illustrate the usefulness of our proposed tests we consider testing rational expectations hypotheses using U.S. data.
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2020
This paper analyzes the channels of change of subjective well-being (SWB), and how are the effects of a social intermediation program. We develop a simple theoretical model to link SWB with the individual and reference wealth, the effort and the level of aspirations. After to overcome selection issues with an instrumental variable to identify causal effects, we find a negative impact on SWB being the main channel of this change is subjective relative wealth, i.e., the relation between the individual and the reference wealth. There is no effect through other theoretical channels, but the results on SWB are heterogeneous by psychological features; they are higher among those with low aspiration levels and external locus of control. Finally, we disentangle the main program characteristics that might generate this effect giving relevant information for the policymakers.
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: Inglés
Autor/es: Bérgolo, Marcelo ; Ceni Gonzalez, Rodrigo ; Giaccobasso, Matías; Cruces, Guillermo; Perez-Truglia, Ricardo
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: Inglés
Autor/es: Dean, Andrés
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: Español
Autor/es: Blanchard, Pablo; Dean, Andrés ; Alves, Guillermo; Burdín, Gabriel
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: Inglés
Tipo de Publicación : Documentos de Trabajo
Idioma: Inglés
Autor/es: Alejo, Javier; Victor Funes
Fecha: 2019
his working paper explores the effect of joint labor decisions on the study of wage regression models. The estimation of Mincer equations suffers from numerous sources of bias, including the sample selection problem generated by the fact that the agent decision to work is not independent of the wage. Most of the papers corrects this bias using a model of individual labor participation. However, recent trends in the labor market show greater participation of women in the labor force and seem to indicate that the joint decision of the spouses is increasingly relevant in determining the selection mechanism.
Autor/es: Alejo, Javier; Galvao, A. y Montes Rojas, G., Z.
Tipo de Publicación : Articulos en revistas arbitradas
Fecha: 2018
Continuous treatments (e.g., doses) arise often in practice. Methods for estimation and inference for quantile treatment effects models with a continuous treatment are proposed. Identification of the parameters of interest, the dose-response functions and the quantile treatment effects, is achieved under the assumption that selection to treatment is based on observable characteristics. An easy to implement semiparametric two-step estimator, where the first step is based on a flexible Box–Cox model is proposed. Uniform consistency and weak convergence of this estimator are established. Practical statistical inference procedures are developed using bootstrap...
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