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Individual Values, Public Reasoning and the Promotion of Social Cohesion

  • Felipe Goulart Tomkowski (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil)
  • Izete Pengo Bagolin (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil)
Resumen:
This study aims to address the topic of the so-called public reasoning focusing, more specifically, on the discussion about which would be the underlying individual political values that characterize a person as being rational and reasonable and how might be possible to reinforce this set of “ideal” values in a society. As Rawls (1997) argue, “a citizen engages in public reason, when he or she deliberates within a framework of what he or she sincerely regards as the most reasonable political conception of justice, a conception that expresses political values that others, as free and equal citizens might also reasonably be expected reasonably to endorse”. Different interpretations of public reason yield sharply diverse views regarding the duties of citizens and public officials. Moreover, the opinions about the importance of moral altruistic values to guide individual behaviors and thinking process are not consensual in the literature. The first main venture of this article is then to argue that, in order to have a real thriving public reasoning, the referred conceptualization of justice have to be composed of a more compassionate set values for a society to excel. That is to say, it is crucial to realize the importance of what could be associated back to Comte’s idea of inclusive human sympathy. It is expected to identify these set of values and conceive an articulated defense of some type of behavior and rationale pattern that makes an individual reasonable in a sense of caring about others and going beyond a mere egoistic state of mind based on a counterpointed synthesized examination of different perspectives, such as those of Rawls, Habermas and Nussbaum. From this scrutiny, the article ill try to foresee alternatives, taken from behavioral economics insights, through which these values can be reinforced hence enabling a society to increase its social cohesion and its human development.
 
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