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Poverty and Inequality

 
Poverty and Inequality
The group’s interests center on inequality and poverty. At present, the main research topics are: a) poverty and income inequality, and their determinants; b) multidimensional well-being; c) socioeconomic mobility and equality of opportunities; d) redistributive policies and preferences for redistribution. These areas of research are supported by various projects currently being carried out and by the doctoral research of several of the group’s members. Area a) works on maintaining the Uruguayan household surveys (Encuestas Continuas de Hogares, ECH) compatibilized databases and on exploring new data sources that allow for the analysis of labor and capital incomes (i.e tax-records). Area b) focuses on a research project currently underway that focuses on child well-being, on the elaboration of a longitudinal early childhood development module for the ECH and on the impact evaluation of “Uruguay Crece Contigo” and “Cercanias (Ministry of Social Development, MIDES)’’. Area c) is centered on the intergenerational determination of opportunities and aspirations. Lastly, area d) is mainly devoted to the evaluation of the program “Family Assignations – Equity Plan”, being carried out through a technical cooperation agreement with MIDES.

The group is in charge of a course on Topics in Income Distribution (Economics Masters, FCEyA) and a course on the Construction of Social Indicators (Demography Masters, FCS). In the second semester of 2014 we will start offering course on Income Inequality for students in the Undergraduate Degree in Economics, FCEA.

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  Recent publications in the area
Showing 37 - 37  
Author/s: Katzkowicz, Noemí; Martina Querejeta
Date: 2020
Investment in childhood is fundamental to healthy child development and positive long-term effects. This paper aims to analyze the impact of early education on child development, measured through: Ages and Stages Questionnaires - Third Edition (ASQ-3). The results are not homogenous for the studied population, and effects are not found when the total sample is considered. A negative and significant effect on gross motor skills was found for children under 40 months. For children over 40 months, the effect of early education on socioindividual tests and problem-solving tests is positive and significant. Early education policies are fundamental to contributing to the improvement child development
Date: 2019
This paper examines whether opportunity of access to public university has improved over the period 2008–2013 in Uruguay;
Type of Publication : Working Papers
Languaje: English
Type of Publication : Working Papers
Language: English
Date: 2019
Demographic and social changes have posed challenges to social protection systems in both developed and developing countries. In the former, population is gradually aging due to the ongoing demographic transition, characterized by fewer children being born and more adults surviving into old age. At the same time, the prevalence of significant gender gaps in the provision of care, with links to documented differences between men and women in the labor market, reinforce the need for innovation and new approaches to the provision of social protection...
Type of Publication : Working Papers
Language: Spanish
Type of Publication : Working Papers
Language: English
Author/s: Vilá, Joan
Type of Publication : Working Papers
Language: Spanish
Author/s: Rodríguez, Mariana; Rodríguez Vivas, Mariana
Language: Spanish
Type of Publication : Working Papers
Language: Spanish
Author/s: Tenenbaum, Victoria ; Martín Lavalleja; Lanina Rossi
Date: 2019
Since the 1980s, many Latin American countries have tightened access to contributory pensions, with financial sustainability being a main concern. Studies suggest that a sizable share of contributors would not be able to comply with stricter access conditions, since observed contribution densities were low. While most Latin American countries lack complete work history records, the observed density of contributions offered strong evidence of short contribution histories, in particular for low-income workers and women. In the last decade these facts drove a new wave of reforms, in the form of less demanding eligibility requirements to access pensions and the need for a gender perspective. Uruguay took part in both processes, increasing vesting period conditions in 1996, then lowering them and granting childcare credits in 2008. In this article, we analyse the effects that less strict eligibility requirements would have on pension entitlements in Uruguay, estimating complete contribution histories using administrative records. Work history records have been kept since April 1996 only, meaning there are still no complete work histories. The study finds that pension rights would increase, in particular for women. The main effect would be driven by the lower contribution requirement. In addition, childcare credits would further reduce the gender gap in terms of access to benefits. The case of Uruguay is relevant in the regional context, as most Latin American countries are ageing rapidly and can learn from the Uruguayan experience, a country with vital statistics closer to those of developed countries. Also, recent reforms in the region show shared concerns on pension rights and the gender gap.
Author/s: Méndez, Luciana ; Luciana Méndez
This study analyzes the extent to which Uruguayan youth’s economic dissatisfaction drives intention to migrate by exploring those factors that can affect people’s economic satisfaction.
Date: 2018
This article analyses the effects of the implementation of childcare pension credits for women in Uruguay, which were introduced as part of a social security reform in 2009. Using microdata from administrative records of the social security administration, we show that around 60% of retired women have used these credits between 2009 and 2015, computing on average 2.7 additional years of service. The use of childcare credits has been higher among more vulnerable female workers. Among women with lower pensions, childcare credits are used both to reach the required years for retirement and to improve the amount of pensions, whereas for women in the higher deciles the program mainly impacts on the amount of pensions. Using a difference in difference approach, we also show that the program has, to some extent, acted as a substitute for the mechanism of computing years of service through the declaration of witnesses, an extended practice in Uruguay to access pensions. Lastly, we show that, if these credits had not been incepted, female access to pensions would have been significantly lower, and gender gaps both in access to, and in the amount of, pensions would have been higher.
Author/s: Méndez, Luciana ; Roxana Gutiérrez Romero
Type of Publication : Book Chapters
Date: 2017
This chapter assesses the extent to which historical levels of inequality affect the creation and survival of businesses over time.
Based on the methodology proposed by Alkire and Foster, the objective of this paper is to estimate a multidimensional poverty index for children in Uruguay between 2006 and 2014. This allows the analysis of the reactions of non-monetary dimensions of wellbeing, in the context of an important increase of household income. The main results show a smaller reduction of the index compared to the monetary poverty, and stagnation in the last two years. This trend is largely explained by the dimensions of comfort and education.
Author/s: Vigorito, Andrea ; Bucheli, Marisa
Type of Publication : Working Papers
Showing 37 - 37  
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